Written on June 21, 2013 at 5:11 pm
For many years the battery market remained relatively static when it came to the technology that was incorporated into the typical car battery. While the major manufacturers obviously invested in improving the performance of their batteries, they were all generally lead-acid batteries designed to cater for large current discharge when starting the engine and subject to continuous charging while the vehicle was in use.
As far as the workshop was concerned, providing the battery was maintained properly – topped up with de-ionised water, kept from excessive discharge and regularly charged etc. – it would provide a reliable source of power until it inevitably needed to be replaced. Replacement was a simple and straightforward process, which was only complicated by the fact that in more recent years a current had to be maintained in the system to ensure the power to the ECU and related equipment wasn’t lost.
However, the introduction of Start-Stop vehicles has driven a major change in battery technology. Start-Stop, otherwise known as micro hybrid, engines have become the preferred route for most of the vehicle manufacturers to follow in order for them to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption of their vehicles and achieve the European Union requirement for fleet average vehicle emissions.
The traditional lead-acid ‘starter’ battery is not suitable for this type of engine and therefore cannot be used. Instead it requires a battery that can deliver the starting power of a traditional automotive battery with the cyclic (charge, discharge, charge etc.) capacity of a specialist mobility battery. The result is the absorbent glass mat (AGM) battery, which was first developed by VARTA® for whom Manbat is the UK’s largest supply partner.
What challenges do technicians face when changing AGM and gel based batteries compared to lead acid based batteries, also the key differences in performance between the types of batteries within modern day cars.
With a Start-Stop vehicle fitted with an AGM battery, the technician cannot just replace the battery in the way that they have done with a traditional battery where, as mentioned earlier, the greatest challenge was simply to ensure a supply feed was maintained.
Instead as the battery is intricately linked to the vehicle’s on-board electronics via a battery management system (BMS) or intelligent battery sensor (IBS), so it has to be integrated into the system and paired with the BMS/IBS, which requires specialist equipment. Without the equipment to assist the technician and introduce the battery into the system, the vehicle will at best illuminate error messages on the dash or fail to charge the battery, at worst, simply not start at all.
Regarding Gel batteries, these are a ‘red herring’ as they not really suitable for automotive use and for the performance difference between lead-acid and AGM batteries, please refer to the comment in the overview.
The significance of receiving dedicated training in how to test, diagnose and fit these new batteries
Training is particularly important because the number of potential faults in a Start-Stop system is far greater than for a traditional electrical system. Because the engine is switched off as frequently as possible and only restarts when the vehicle needs to move off or when the state of charge of the battery drops to a predetermined level, the BMS is extremely complicated. Therefore the correct testing procedure and fault diagnosis is vital. This is also complicated by the fitting challenges mentioned above.
Any key areas that independents or the aftermarket need to be aware of with these new types of batteries (e.g. coding the ECU to recognise the battery, etc.).
As with every aspect of the trade, fitting the correct battery for the application is paramount. For entry-level or smaller Start-Stop vehicles for example, an AGM battery might not be the appropriate replacement as the original fitment could be an enhanced flooded battery (EFB). Although these batteries have similar characteristics to AGM batteries, they are not the same and the two should not be interchanged. Likewise, just installing a larger capacity lead-acid battery is no solution for Start-Stop battery replacement.
To prevent error messages and other installation related problems, quality Start-Stop batteries should be the first thought when being replaced, as these will have the necessary 2D codes to ensure the battery is a ‘match’ for the vehicle and be ‘accepted’ by the BMS/ECU.
Any key pointers or tips regarding safety of removing, fitting or disposing of AGM and gel based batteries.
There is little guarantee that the battery in a Start-Stop vehicle will reside in the engine bay! Therefore, technicians need to have access to technical information such as TecRMI, or similar workshop related technical data, to pinpoint the exact location of the battery, be it in the boot floor or, as it is in at least one application, beneath the front passenger seat!
When it comes to responsible disposal, workshops have to understand their environmental responsibilities and ensure batteries are disposed of legally, but they should also be aware that they could benefit finically from responsible battery disposal as batteries have a ‘scrap’ value.
Manbat is a member of the ECOBAT group, which includes specialist waste battery businesses and lead smelter ECOBAT Technologies, one of the world’s leading suppliers of lead. Annually ECOBAT converts millions of tons of lead waste into high quality lead ingots, strip, wire and shot through its efficient smelters across the globe. Among its many customers are a number of major battery manufacturers and some of these brands are subsequently distributed nationally through Manbat’s comprehensive branch network.
The combination of new battery sales and distribution, together with waste battery collection, recycling and the reintroduction of lead into the manufacturing process, means that the ECOBAT group, and therefore Manbat, is able to be exceptionally environmentally aware and is currently the only global company offering a closed recycling loop for lead-acid batteries.
Any key considerations for garages to be in mind with maintaining these batteries.
Providing the vehicle’s BMS is working as it is intended, these batteries require no specific maintenance. They are fully sealed and maintenance free.
How vital is it for garages to upgrade their equipment in preparation for cars arriving with these batteries.
It is absolutely vital. Without the correct equipment workshops cannot test the battery and the associated elements in the Start-Stop system. This equipment allows them to diagnose whether a fault lies with the battery, alternator, BMS, IBS or elsewhere.
How do these kind of batteries affect the leisure sector, and how do operate within this sector.
AGM batteries are suitable for leisure purposes where a deep discharge product is required, but leisure specific batteries like Manbat’s Numax XV range dominate this sector and provide a far more suitable solution for the majority of leisure battery requirements.
However, with their obvious battery knowledge, factors, workshops and retailers are in the ideal position to develop their battery sales beyond the automotive ‘distress purchase’ boundaries and benefit from the ‘aspirational purchase’ opportunities the leisure, marine and golf sectors provide.
Also any key selling points that garages and independents should know when advising a customer to replace their battery for an AGM or gel based battery.
Manbat always recommends that workshops choose a quality battery when undertaking replacement, but this is even more important when working on Start-Stop vehicles for the reasons previously discussed. Allied to this, VARTA is the largest original equipment battery supplier to Europe’s vehicle manufacturers and has led the development of Start-Stop battery technology. As a result, by fitting VARTA a like for like replacement is highly likely, but whatever the original battery, the necessary quality is guaranteed.
For non Start-Stop applications Manbat recommends the use of an application guide like its just-launched Lucas Battery Catalogue, to ensure the correct specification battery is selected. Only when the vehicle has been fitted with additional electrical equipment or when the vehicle has been modified to cope with extreme conditions, such as mountain rescue or other emergency vehicles, does it suggest the battery should be upgraded. In this instance the enhanced performance of an AGM battery could be an advantage even though the vehicle doesn’t utilise a Start-Stop system.